Luxury & the Internet: Milano Fashion Global Summit 2009

25 11 2009

Last night I had a brief moment to slip out of the office and into the Milano Fashion Global Summit in the center of Milan, where the industry leaders of Italy were gathered to talk about “Who Will Survive” the Global Financial Crisis, and more importantly, how.  Of course, with most speakers getting between 5-10 minutes on the floor, it goes without saying that there was not much depth (or height, in this case?) to the Summit.

Unfortunately, I couldn’t get away in time to hear Matteo Marzotto speak about his plans for reviving the Vionnet brand, but I was able to make it there towards the end of the day, when one of my favorite topics was being highlighted: Web & Mobile Luxury. However, upon arriving at the venue, I was disappointed to find that the presentation was entitled: “Is Luxury Compatible with the Internet?”

Seriously?! …After writing about this for more than a year, and studying and working in the field for longer, I sometimes can’t believe that we are still hearing this question asked among those considered to be the industry elite.

But I digress.

The presentation was delivered by Jacques-Antoine Granjon, French CEO of vente-privee.com, a members-only online retailer of some 850 brands, typically selling end-of season products through 3-day flash sales. It’s kind of like the European version of Gilt Groupe, with what appears to be a much smaller selection of merchandise and fewer high-profile brands.

The presentation was brief, but in his defense, with only 8 minutes to deliver a message to convince business leaders that luxury and the internet do belong together, he made an entertaining synopsis.

Without further ado….

My Brief Notes on the… Brief Presentation

Following are the notes I took from the presentation. I tried to keep it as verbatim as possible, so read this with a French accent. To begin to illustrate his point, Granjon started with an analogy to online luxury…

Question: What is the most exclusive toy in the world of luxury today?

Answer: The Luxury Jet

  • It saves time & offers control (controlling the when & where in life = freedom)
  • It provides the best service (with highly skilled staff, pilots, maintenance & 1-to-1 travel care)
  • It offers the utmost in innovation & know-how (provided through superior R&D, highest quality materials, technology & design)
  • It is exclusive (traveling alone, in privacy = power)
  • It provides the dream (exploration, imagination)

These five points represent the luxury codes, which the internet can provide for brands. BUT, these codes are not enough for luxury online. There are several more points:

  1. The internet is not just a new format of boutique. It requires a new distribution strategy.
  2. It accelerates growth and visibility of brands everywhere around the world, but only if controlled.
  3. There can be no mistakes, because the internet is permanent, and it takes time to build a presence.
  4. The internet is a world that requires new skills and entrepreneurial determination. In addition to the luxury codes mentioned above, in order to be successful on the internet, luxury brands need the following:
  • Tech skills: must evolve as quickly as they emerge
  • Digital factory: create graphics, coding, etc
  • B2C distribution centers
  • Award-winning customer relationship services
  • Knowledge of online marketing

I see your point, but…

For those of you out there who are, like me, thinking, “That’s IT?” after reading this… yes, that’s it.

They still don’t get it. While it may seem obvious if not insufficient to those of us who eat, sleep and breathe this stuff, I have personally met CEOs and marketing managers of major luxury brands within the last year who are reluctant to start developing a branded web-presence because they fear losing control of the brand image. On the other hand, I have also met online wizards who are eager to take advantage of this lack of luxury presence online, but fail to realize that they need savvy logistics and distribution systems as well as a killer CRM program before even contemplating the notion of luxury e-commerce.

But, back to that presentation. There are two primary associations to luxury that are critical, and are blatantly missing here. When a branded online environment is created, they should definitely be addressed.

The first, and perhaps the most important of all luxury codes is connectivity (this can mean a lot of things, among them the connection a customer feels to what a brand represents, like American Aristocracy with Ralph Lauren, or to a brand’s history of jaw-dropping elegance and sex, which is what a customer is buying in a modern Vionnet dress). Some people will call this “history,” but I think it’s also important to indicate that the luxury customer is  buying into a community, connecting that history with their own.

Most luxury brands have a profound history, and if they don’t start with one, it’s often fabricated, as was the case with the Tod’s brand under Diego Della Valle’s brilliant marketing strategy (he had shoes from the new Tod’s brand superimposed on famous images of Audrey Hepburn and other classic icons). Just as the luxury jet connects us either to a location from our past, or to an exciting future, so does the luxury brand. There is a story behind it- something both intimately familiar and excitingly new. The internet is the perfect vehicle to convey that history, to tell the story about how a particular brand developed and why that brand is loved, and to build a connected community of “lovers” around it, like a family that shares the same values.

Finally, an unfortunate association to luxury that is certainly present with the private jet, and a term which occurred in my graduate research on the topic more than any of the other luxury codes, is waste or excess. Happily, the internet can help to eliminate waste in so many ways, from streamlining the supply chain on the back-end to providing the transparency that allows consumers to understand and choose what tradeoffs they are willing to make between such hot points as carbon footprints, “Made in…” issues, labor conditions, and production materials, versus price and quality.

Moving on to the other points of the presentation, I disagree with a couple of things:

  • His point: The internet accelerates growth and visibility of brands everywhere around the world, but only if controlled.
    • My point: The internet accelerates growth and visibility of brands everywhere around the world, regardless of whether or not the brand controls the message. It’s always better to establish your own online presence than to entrust it solely to outsiders and amateurs, who could accelerate brand growth and visibility in an entirely undesirable way.
  • His point: There can be no mistakes, because the internet is permanent, and it takes time to build a presence.
    • My point: No one is infallible. Tell a brand manager that she has to be perfect in every way on the internet, and she will never build a presence there. The beauty of the internet is that you can address mistakes right away: you apologize, publicly correct the situation, and in the process it’s likely that you actually increase your fan-base because people trust you.

So, for those of you out there who are fashion/web geeks like me, take heart: we’ve got a lot of fun work to do!

And, by the way, I noticed that the Vionnet site is not developed. If anyone knows Matteo Marzotto, let him know that I’d love to help!





Ralph Lauren: American Classic

16 07 2009

Ralph Lauren w quote

Over more than 40 years, Ralph Lauren has pioneered the development of the Lifestyle Industry, from humble beginnings as a tie designer. Although the company has experienced financial ups and downs, acclaim and criticism alike, it remains one of the most successful fashion businesses in the world.

The following is my effort to capture the story of the Polo Ralph Lauren company, moving from the history of the man behind the brand to the structure of the business.

Ralph Lauren: The Man

Ralph Lauren (Lifshitz) 1945Ralph Lifschitz was born into a working-class family in the Bronx, New York City in 1939. Coming from a long line of Orthodox Jews, Ralph’s late mother is rumored to have wanted her youngest son to become a rabbi. However, young Ralph’s father was a house painter, and Ralph himself had ambitions of becoming a millionaire- according to his high school yearbook.

Young Ralph was apparently driven to become the ideal “self-made man” from an early age. Throughout his youth, he worked summers in the Catskills, where he observed the wealthy American lifestyle that would capture his imagination. Later, Ralph worked in New York department stores and spent his savings on expensive clothes, becoming the best dressed of his classmates by the age of 12.

By 16, he and his brother Jerry had both changed their names from Lifschitz to Lauren. The idea of dressing for the position (or lifestyle) you hope to attain has served as a mantra for Ralph Lauren’s subsequent success, as he has enabled millions to do just that.

“People ask, ‘How can a Jewish kid from the Bronx do preppy clothes?’ Does it have to do with class and money? It has to do with dreams.” -RL

lauren familyAfter serving in the US Army for two years (1962-64), Lauren was discharged and quickly married Ricky Lauren. They have three children together.

While selling ties at Brooks Brothers, Lauren attended night school in business at City College in NYC. While working in the “preppy” world of Brooks Brothers and observing other like-minded companies, Lauren realized there was a largely unserved market for people like himself, who wanted to dress within a certain “blue-blood” lifestyle, without appearing stuffy or breaking the bank. He began to tap into this market by veering away from the popular “skinny tie” to create wide, colorful neckwear.

A tie was the way a man expressed himself. I believed that men were ready for something new and different. They didn’t want to look as if they worked for IBM. A beautiful tie was an expression of quality, taste, style.”   -RL

centre vs harvard yearbook photoRalph Lauren took inspiration from the yearbooks of Princeton, Harvard and Yale, and from old photographs of prominent Americans, as well as his own personal idea of the images that represent the classic American heritage and the “sporting gentleman.” He went on to develop the largest lifestyle company in the world.

In 1987, after the removal of a benign brain tumor, Lauren began a longterm commitment to philanthropy. The Polo Ralph Lauren Foundation was created for the purpose of providing support for philanthropic programs including education, healthcare in medically under-served communities, the arts and community-based initiatives. His family and company have supported historic preservation activities and numerous cancer research initiatives, including the Pink Pony campaign for breast cancer. In addition, Lauren founded the Ralph Lauren Center for Cancer Care and Prevention in 2001.

ralph lauren classicLauren’s company was floated on the stock market in 1997, and Forbes now lists him as one of the world’s billionaires. He and his wife, Ricky, have five homes, each filling in a chapter of Lauren’s ideal American existence. There is the apartment in Manhattan and two houses not far away: a beach house in Montauk, at the tip of Long Island, and an estate in Bedford (see Architectural Digest, November 2004), an hour north of New York City. There are also two more distant places: a ranch in Colorado (see Architectural Digest, November 2002) and a two-house retreat in the posh Round Hill resort, near Montego Bay on Jamaica (see Architectural Digest, November 2007).

It seems that Lauren’s childhood dreams have been dwarfed by his larger-than-life reality.

The best thing you can do is go away from this saying, ‘I can do this too,’ because it’s all possible, and I’m living proof.” -RL

Below is a one-hour interview from 1993 where Ralph Lauren speaks with Charlie Rose about his life, his inspirations, and his business. (You may have to drag the scroll bar to get it going.)

The History of Polo Ralph Lauren

1939: A Star is Born

Ralph Lifschitz was born in the Bronx, & later changed his name to Lauren.

1960s: Chasing the Dream

Ralph Lauren 1960sLauren studied business at City College in Manhattan while working as a glove salesman. He later began working for tie-manufacturer A. Rivetz & Co, who refused to produce his wide-tie design in the era of skinny-ties. Lauren dropped out of school just before graduation, and convinced clothier Beau Brummel to manufacture his Polo line of neckwear. Within a year, Lauren took out a $50,000 private loan from clothier Norman Hilton and founded the Polo Fashions, Inc. business with his brother, Jerry (the name would become the Polo/Ralph Lauren Corporation -PRL- in 1987).

The ties were first sold in small menswear shops and later in fashionable department stores. Bloomingdales originally refused to sell the ties unless Lauren agreed to remove his label in order to reduce the tie-width. Lauren refused, and Bloomingdales had only to look at the success of his sales figures to understand that they were mistaken. Lauren’s colorful wide ties found a niche – even at Bloomies, and the brand was expanded to include men’s business attire and sportswear. The company designed, manufactured and distributed the entire Polo collection.

From the beginning, Lauren established clear stylistic codes that embraced the myth of the American aristocracy by merging classic American style with the refinement, tailoring and sensibility of European fashion.

1970s: Branded Genius

Ralph Lauren 1978Lauren won the Coty Award for menswear, and immediately produced a line of men’s dress shirts cut for women, in addition to the now infamous Polo shirt with the breast logo. Both lines were a huge success, but by 1972 the company was almost bankrupt. The young entrepreneur had proven himself a genius at establishing a strong brand identity with lightning-speed, but had difficulty managing the finances and logistics of a fashion business.

Lauren invested $100,000 of his own savings into the company and recruited Peter Strom from his post at Norman Hilton to become his business partner. Lauren then owned 90% of the company, while Strom owned 10%.

Strom and Lauren proved themselves a dynamic working team. As Strom reported to the New York Times: “We divide the work this way: I do everything Ralph doesn’t want to do; and I don’t do anything he likes to do. He designs, he does advertising, public relations; I do the rest.”

In this spirit of doing what you like and what you’re good at (not bad advice, by the way), Strom and the Lauren brothers scrutinized their business structure and adapted it to what they did best: design and marketing. Manufacturing of the women’s line was licensed out to experienced producer Stuart Kreisler, who was enthusiastic about building the Lauren brand.

Under the licensing agreement, Lauren would design, and Stuart Kreisler would manufacture and distribute the line while sharing advertising costs, with Lauren earning 5-8% of the wholesale revenues. The structure of this agreement would serve as the model for future PRL licensing efforts.

In addition to this agreement, Strom insisted that all retailers carrying Polo products would be required to sell the entire line, including the most expensive suit ($350). While this initially eliminated 2/3 of the retailers carrying Polo, the retailers who remained developed a loyal working relationship with Lauren.

Ralph Lauren Western Collection 1978By the end of the decade, Lauren had moved the company from the brink of failure into an emerging powerhouse. He also created a smash-hit Westernwear collection in addition to fragrances for men and women. He designed the wardrobes for The Great Gatsby (1973) and Annie Hall (1978), influencing the way millions dressed -although without the product placement that would bring Armani fame in American Gigalo in the 80s. He had also won the American Fashion Award, and was elected into the Coty Hall of Fame for both menswear and womenswear.

With the company finances back in order, Lauren returned to building his brand image and began to invest in extensive advertising spreads that used powerful imagery to tell the story of the Polo Ralph Lauren lifestyle. A movement that went beyond clothing was born.

1980s: Building the Lifestyle Empire

RL Luggage 1980Lauren continued his brand expansion to include childrenswear, eyewear, underwear, jeanswear, shoes, accessories, housewares, furs, luggage, and a range of other products. However, unlike most companies who suffered brand image dilution from rapid expansion using licensees, the image of Polo was only strengthened. There were several reasons for this anomaly, but the main ones were that Lauren designed everything himself or held final design approval, and retail imaging was carefully controlled by the brand through franchises or shop-in-shops.

Only two product categories gave the brand substantial problems: fragrances and the home collection. The fragrance sales were lacking until Lauren found the right licensing partner in Cosmair, Inc. who was willing to help develop and promote the products. Sales in Polo, Polo Sport, Lauren and Safari fragrances skyrocketed.

ralph lauren home shop-in-shopThe home collection, on the other hand, received widespread praise for brilliant comprehensive design, but suffered at the hands of the licensee. It was originally licensed for production and distribution to the J.P. Stevens Company, who had difficulties getting the products to retailers on time and demonstrated poor quality control. In addition, they required that retailers construct specific free-standing boutiques within their stores to display the items- at a cost of $250,000 each! Retailers obviously balked at this figure. The result: low-quality home goods and expensive requirements for stores = unhappy customers and retail partners. It took the company years to recover the home collection.

Santa Fe Collection 1981(fall)Nevertheless, all Polo products embraced an idealized aspect of the American cultural experience, and this concept was reflected in the store design and advertising. The Santa-Fe collection was added to the brand in 1981, providing Navajo-inspired designs that were a global success. To produce the ultimate in-store brand experience, the company went through an elaborate process of historic restoration to create the first flagship store in the 1890s Rhinelander mansion on Madison Avenue, opened in 1986. This would be followed by the development of a London flagship on Bond Street and the brand’s largest international store in Paris.

The company now has stores in more than 31 countries, and controls more than 50 brand outlets at a significant distance from regular retailers to prevent inter-brand competition while controlling the brand image.

1990s: New Frontiers

RL Polo brand competitionDifficulties did not allude the brand. The recession of the early 90s saw cutbacks in Polo’s retail operations. According to retailers and various news sources, many manufacturers had begun copying Lauren’s designs and selling them at lower prices.

RL Polo Sport lineHowever, PRL continued to roll in the cash with the introduction of the Polo Sport and Double RL Jeans lines, and Lauren received the CFDA Lifetime Achievement Award in addition to awards for best menswear, womenswear and retailer.

The company’s continued success positioned them for the profitable sale of 28% of the company to a Goldman Sachs & Co. investment fund for $135 million in 1994. The company then went public in 1997 on the NYSE when Lauren sold 18 million of his personal shares for $465.4 million. He still retained 90% of company voting rights, enabling himself to maintain control over the direction of the brand.

Throughout the 90s, the company continued with brand expansion projects, and shifted several of its licensing agreements in an effort to provide high-quality products at several price points, thus embracing the full lifestyle offering. By the end of the 1990s, nearly 300 licensing agreements were in place. Of the brand’s 200+ retail outlets, about half were operated through licenses, and yet the brand image remained intact.

Ralph Lauren RestaurantAs the new century approached, the company continued to grow while maintaining a strong image rooted in the idealized dream of American culture. Ralph Lauren further diversified the brand through the development of the Purple Label (tailored menswear) in 94 and the opening of the RL restaurant in Chicago in 99. He also began to demonstrate the philanthropic nature of the company before it became fashionable, spearheading efforts in historic preservation in the States and the fight against cancer.

In the late 90s, the company acquired Club Monaco to get a handle on the younger market which competitor Tommy Hilfiger had captured, yet had remained allusive to Ralph Lauren. The RALPH line was then created to target the “daughter of the Lauren market”.

2000s: Media Master

Ralph Lauren 2007Ralph Lauren had grown from a tie-designer into a lifestyle mogul in just 30 years, creating the industry path to success that others would scramble to follow. However, the company’s spirit of innovation didn’t stop with the 90s.

In 2000 the company formed a multimedia marketing joint venture with NBC and affiliates, and ValueVision (operator of the Home Shopping Network). With the new media capabilities this partnership enabled, the company began to explode with cutting-edge communications strategies that would leave the rest of the industry years behind.

PRL’s first television campaigns began immediately. Polo.com was developed in 2000, providing one of the first mono-brand e-commerce sites in fashion history. It was followedRL Magazine screenshot in 2001 by the online magazine outlining all things celebrity, sport, art and culture that would appeal to the ideal American persona that Lauren had built. That same year, Runway.Polo.com was launched, providing fashion fans with a look behind the scenes in collection-development and fashion shows, while offering style and beauty tips. Just one year later, the Home site was launched, exploring every item in the collection and offering decorating tips to readers.

By 2003 the International Website had launched, providing a glimpse into the Ralph Lauren lifestyle for the first time for many new markets around the world. The Create-Your-Own project also debuted online, enabling users to interactively “design” their own Polo shirts by selecting from available color combinations and graphics. The venture proved very successful and was repeated in subsequent years.

RL Madison Ave touch-screen shopping windowThe technological integration continued with the creation of the Virtual Window Shop, a touch-screen monitor on the window of the Madison Avenue store that allowed customers to shop “online” anytime, even after the store’s closing hours. More than increasing the number of virtual shoppers at the store site, the window really served to generate hype and publicity for the brand. The window piece was featured in most fashion publications worldwide, in addition to business news and technology publications. The window, in effect, became a tourist destination.

Polo ad with QR codeIn 2008, consumers with SmartPhones were enabled to shop from the pages of their favorite magazines by scanning Quick Response (QR) codes in PRL ads with their mobile phones. Several iPhone applications were also launched to attract brand fans to interact from anywhere they could get a signal.

In the never-ending brand battle to win the hearts of the next generation, PRL launched the Rugby line in 2004 (yes, that’s before Gossip Girl) in an effort to attract the “burgeoning college” market. The Rugby line provides aspirational lifestyle products in a preppy, youthful style through a vertical retail format (meaning the PRL controls logisitics, distribution and retail). Rugby.com was worked over in 2008 to provide e-commerce, mobile commerce, media content, and the make-your-own features that had proven so popular with Polo.

By 2007, its 40th year in business, Polo Ralph Lauren was a $4.3 billion enterprise with a presence in 80 countries. Offerings at nearly every price point — from value to luxury — covered men’s and women’s apparel, home goods including paint, accessories, fragrances and eyewear at the time of the brand’s anniversary celebration and commemorative book release.

Lauren himself has been awarded the CFDA’s American Fashion Legend Award and the first-ever Voter’s Choice Award, and continues to lead and support numerous philanthropic endeavors.

PRL remains a flexible business model, integrating retail, wholesale and licensing to most effectively provide the world of Ralph Lauren to consumers. The company’s brand names include, among others: Ralph Lauren, Polo by Ralph Lauren, Ralph Lauren Purple Label, Black Label, Blue Label, Lauren by Ralph Lauren, Polo Jeans Co., RRL, RLX, Rugby, Ralph Lauren Childrenswear, Ralph Lauren Baby, Ralph Lauren Home, Lauren by Ralph Lauren Home, American Living, Chaps, and Club Monaco.

In spite of 4th quarter losses at the end of Fiscal Year 2009 (which closed on March 28, 2009), net revenues for the year grew 3% to $5.02 billion from $4.88 billion in the previous year. These gains are attributed to increased wholesale and retail sales, but have been diminished by the loss of some licensing fees as PRL has bought back licensing rights in key markets to strengthen the brand image abroad. The company continues to focus on longterm growth, enhancing development abroad especially in SE Asia and pushing the pattern of innovation in products and operations in the coming years.

The current economic crisis ensures that Fiscal 2010 will be challenging for PRL, but the company strategy of brand protection (bound by brand building and extension, specialty retail including web, and international expansion) has most speculators confident that the company will continue to thrive.

Ralph Lauren: The Brand

Ralph Lauren iconic shotAll lines of PRL represent the idea of the American Aristocrat, rich in European heritage with a mix of New England urbanity and a rugged country flair.

The look embraces a style that is sporty, preppy, wealthy, traveled, and timeless while remaining modern.

Within this ideal, each line represents its own niche, although there has reportedly been some confusion among customers as to what each line stands for (perceived brand overlap). This is understandable, given the number of lines the company has produced. Below I have placed some of them into positioning maps by style and price-point (there are many lines missing from this map, some available only in specific markets- like Lauren for Men, others discontinued or owned by the company but not in use). Obviously, all styles from elegant to athletic fall within the broader “classic” category.

Positioning of Ralph Lauren womens lines

Positioning of Ralph Lauren mens lines

PRL Communications & Marketing

In the early years, Polo Fashions was marketed solely through the efforts of the department stores that carried the brand’s products. The advertisements included store window features and newspaper ads.

In addition, Ralph Lauren was one of the first designers to have his own shop-in-shop within individual department stores. Through the techniques of set design, he created a specifically branded environment to house his products while reflecting the attitude of the Ralph Lauren lifestyle.

Film would serve as Ralph Lauren’s inspiration in his collections and in his future marketing efforts. Many have complained that he is not a “true” designer, taking images from films and other sources and designing collections around them. But what creative has not done this?

The Great GatsbyIn 1974 the name Ralph Lauren was Annie Hall catapulted into the fashion industry forefront after the release of The Great Gatsby, a monumental film in which Lauren designed the wealthy characters’ wardrobes.

Just three years later, Lauren would again work with a film to create t he looks for Annie and Alvy, the main characters of Woody Allen’s infamous Annie Hall. With this film, Allen created a classic film school staple in ironic comedy, and Lauren created a style icon in Diane Keaton.

1979 Ralph Lauren adsIn the mid-1970s, PRL dedicated about $400,000 per year to marketing efforts. Once or twice a year, the company produced 20-page spreads to be released to several major magazines, instead of the standard one- or two-page ads most other brands released monthly. The spreads looked like movie stills, capturing the lives of characters within a film based on upper-class Americana.

Lauren explained the marketing strategy: “When we appear, we’ll be a star. It’s like Frank Sinatra. If you see him once a year on TV, it’s an event. If you see him every week, it’s no big deal.”

1999(ralph)Over the years, as PRL released more lines targeting different age groups of men and women within the brand’s style, the ads were adapted, always maintaining a cinematic style. All advertising images continue to represent a chapter of the American story, from an elite perspective.

Lauren himself had come to personify the lifestyle he was selling, and appeared in many ad campaigns and in various magazines with his family.

RL NY Flagship interiorIn addition to traditional media advertising, PRL had continued to focus on the physical environment of each store, having grown from shop-in-shops in the 70s to hundreds of flagships and freestanding stores worldwide. Each store is designed for the specific environment, from New York to Milan to Palm Beach. While decorative features my be unique for each site, all embrace a classic upper-class American lifestyle image.

After PRL’s media partnership with NBC was established in 2000, TV spots were added to the communications strategy, finally demonstrating the brand in actual film shorts for apparel, home and fragrances.

RL TV screenshotThe media partnership also provided the capabilities PRL needed to develop a branded website that could capture the Ralph Lauren sensibility, lifestyle, and clothing. Directed by Lauren’s son, David, the website contains products and media content, intended to bring the brand to life in the virtual realm. Lauren has described this combination of merchandising and entertainment as “Merchantainment.” Added to this feature is Ralph Lauren RL TV, which includes behind-the-scenes footage of fashion shows and photo shoots, Lauren-esque celebrity and athlete interviews, and any additional content that might appeal to the ideal Ralph Lauren lifestyle-consumer.

In 2008, applications were released to integrate these functions on the iPhone and other smartphone devices.

Examples of PRL’s cinematic commercial spots are everywhere on YouTube. Here is just a handful:


The Polo Ralph Lauren Business

Ralph Lauren logo

Now a publicly-traded company, the Polo Ralph Lauren business model is built around six primary objectives designed to keep the brand strong while bringing in the big bucks:

  • Creating unique businesses primarily centered around one core and heritage-driven brand;
    • The ability of PRL to maintain a singular “American Aristocrat” image has provided unity across the brand in all product categories, and has enabled the company to take a leadership role in this now-saturated market. (If you create the market, you basically own it until someone else does it better, and so far nobody has done it better than RL.)
  • Diversifying and expanding products and prices, distribution channels and geographic regions;
    • PRL is creating something for everyone in most price ranges to ensure that anyone who WANTS to own a piece of this imagined American lifestyle can.
  • Improving brand control and positioning;
    • When the company has direct control over distribution and quality control, they can ensure that the brand represents the same image everywhere. This is important in an era when customers travel the world and have access to infinite information online. If the brand is poorly represented in one market, a customer seeing this is less likely to think the brand’s product is worth a high price in a more successful market.
  • Focusing on selective strategic partnerships;
    • The company needs the best partners to represent their image properly, produce products and deliver them with expertise, and reduce costs in line with company goals. When PRL selected a poor licensing partner for their Home Collection, a lot of damage was done to the brand through low quality products, delayed delivery, and high costs.
  • Implementing infrastructure improvements that support a worldwide business;
    • This doesn’t just mean building the best “American-style” stores in key markets, but creating a logistics system that enables the company to do efficient business around the world and training employees everywhere to represent the image of Ralph Lauren in the same way throughout various cultures.
  • Funding expansion through strong operating cash flow.
    • This enables the company to use its own money from sales and royalties to fund activities that would otherwise require great external debt. Not only is this good financial management, but it gives the company the freedom to invest in critical initiatives without having to depend on an external party.

Currently, PRL is focused on growing the brand internationally, opening stores in new markets and strengthening the perceived brand image in key areas.

Additional plans outlined in the annual report include further brand extension and product diversification (expanding the Lauren line in Europe, and growing the offering of accessories), increasing direct-to-consumer marketing in key markets (including TV, print, online, etc. and focusing first on Paris), and cost-saving strategies (reducing operational costs and profit margins to provide a lower price range to customers).

International Expansion of PRL

Lauren in TIME Magazine 2006While proving a lifestyle powerhouse in the States, Ralph Lauren wanted to continue his market expansion overseas. Like many consumer goods companies, the method of expansion used by PRL was essentially: find quality manufacturers and distributors in key markets, and form licensing agreements with them. This practice would give the company a foot in the door of foreign markets, using local experts. When opportunity struck, PRL would buy back the licenses or acquire the licensee companies to bring control in-house.

As part of our growth strategy, we seek to extend our brands, expand our geographic coverage and increase direct management of our brands by opening more of our own stores, strategically acquiring or integrating select licenses previously held by our licensees and enhancing our operations. -2009 PRL Annual Report

Beginning in 1998, PRL began buying back many of its European licensing rights while continuing to open flagship stores (London, Paris and Milan) in addition to outlets in France, the UK and Austria. In 2005, PRL’s business in Europe counted for 15.7% of worldwide wholesale net sales (up 150% from 2000). At that time, the company announced its goal to move the European market from a $700 million business to a business worth $1 billion by 2010. This goal was achieved in March 2009 when the net revenue for Europe totaled more than 20% of worldwide sales at just over $1 billion.

PRL worked hard to achieve this goal of growth in Europe, not only by building flagship stores in key cities, but also by increasing their focus in wholesale (selling through external retailers including key boutiques and department stores). Today, about 2,100 stores carry PRL lines through wholesale in the US, compared with about 3,900 stores in Europe. -Much of this difference is due to the fact that, in Europe, there are many different department store chains and other retail avenues that are unique among individual countries.

While PRL owns many branded stores in the US, in Europe the business is still supported greatly by third parties who are trusted within the local markets. This has the effect of giving the PRL lines a foot in the door, but it also adds a new level of complication as the company must deal with many different distributors while maintaining the same global image.

According to the company’s annual report, PRL’s latest goal is to repeat this growth strategy in Southeast Asia, which is comprised of China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand (bringing the Asia-Pacific market to 1/3 total company revenues). Sales in Japan alone have increased by more than 500% since 2007 (to $393 million), and PRL anticipates even greater results in China. The company plans to transition their retail and wholesale operations in Southeast Asia from licensees to internal ownership by 2010, and will continue to integrate the businesses they have already acquired in Japan into the PRL  infrastructure.

Philanthropy, Ethics & Sustainability at Polo Ralph Lauren

RL Pink PonyPolo Ralph Lauren has made strategic investments in support of particular “WASP” sporting events, naturally including polo. In addition, the company has served as the official outfitter not only for the Wimbledon but also for the US Olympic and Paralympic teams. Beyond athletics, the Lauren family has made philanthropy a part of the company’s mission for 20 years.

Ralph Lauren has been an active philanthropist since the mid-80s, when he had a benign brain tumor removed. Afterwards, he became an important leader for the fight against cancer (from fundraising to founding or funding research and treatment initiatives and a clinic), but he has also participated in AIDS charities such as God’s Love We Deliver.

Philanthropic efforts also surround a theme that is close to the culture of the brand: historic restoration of American icons. Whether in the rich environment of his adopted homestead in Bedford, NY or in the winter getaway island of Jamaica, Ralph Lauren has created and funded numerous restoration projects that serve to maintain historical landmarks near to the hearts of Americans.

RL Star Spangled Banner InitiativeBeyond architectural restoration, a team funded by Lauren has recently completed restoration efforts of the original American flag, which inspired the writing of the US national anthem. The flag is now housed within the Smithsonian Museum in DC.

In addition to charities based on Ralph Lauren’s personal interests, or the interests close to the image of the brand, PRL has recently (and quietly) explored a new chapter of activity, focusing on ethical production in response to accusations of abuse.

A Note on Ethics

Saipan workersIn early 1999, a highly-publicized lawsuit was filed in the California courts on behalf of sweatshop workers in the Northern Marianas Islands against 18 US retailers and manufacturers, accusing them of violating RICO racketeering statutes that specifically prohibit peonage and involuntary servitude, and allow suits against anyone benefiting from such an enterprise. Among those accused were retailers Nordstrom’s and J.C. Penney, as well as PRL competitors J Crew and Tommy Hilfiger.

As a protective measure, PRL agreed to require and help finance independent monitoring of its own and other factories in the Islands. The company also agreed to settle a class-action lawsuit over substandard working conditions in factories on the Pacific island of Saipan, where another series of lawsuits had originated regarding substandard working conditions.

In the case of the Saipan lawsuit, defendants included PRL competitors Calvin Klein Inc. and Tommy Hilfiger USA Inc.; retailers The May Department Stores Company and Sears, Roebuck & Company; and major PRL licensee Warnaco, Inc.

Since settling the Saipan lawsuit, PRL has received low but improving marks from labor watchdogs around the world. While they have been supportive of factoring monitoring and send staff to monitor factory working conditions, they have found difficulty in obtaining a squeaky-clean reputation. Along with the other companies who must operate through licensees and third-party contractors, it is difficult to know exactly what is going on with producers at all times – this is why brands such as PRL often buy back their licensees to regain control over their brand little-by-little.

As PRL has continued to expand over the years, many production efforts have been licensed to companies who manufacture through factories in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world where labor prices are still low enough to meet current company practices set to achieve consumer-approved prices. Through language barriers and bureacratic roadblocks, it is often difficult to understand just what factories are producing what products. (It is a common practice for less ethical producers to show brand staffers and inspectors only the factories where the highest standards are met, while other factories are kept off the record.)

As PRL moves into the Southeast Asian market, one would hope that they can regain more control over their manufacturing efforts in the region. While PRL has made many cutting-edge advances in marketing and communications, and seems to have an endless supply of ideas for lines that satisfy consumer demand, they will need to pay more attention to the idea of “ethical fashion,” which is becoming increasingly important to consumers worldwide.

Sustainability

RL Polo eco-toteIn 2007, PRL retained the services of GreenOrder, a strategy and management consulting firm specialized in sustainable business. They worked with the company to identify PRL’s environmental impact throughout the product cycle, to identity and prioritize opportunities for improvement, and to outline steps for achieving new sustainable business goals.

As a result of the process, PRL has developed new shipping practices that cut greenhouse gas emissions. They have also started to focus on green development for new stores and offices, and have implemented internal practices to reduce papaer and energy consumption.

The Founders Dilemma (Solved)

Because most fashion companies are branded around the personality of the designer – from Tom Ford to Yves Saint Laurent – there is often a huge challenge presented when the founding designer retires or, as was the recent case with Gianfranco Ferre, dies. In the past, companies like Dior brought on outrageous celebrity-status designers to bring new energy and media exposure to their brands after the loss of the namesake designer.

More recently, this practice is changing because people care less about a wild designer than a continued aesthetic and symbolic value presented by a brand. However, finding a head designer that can perfectly transition the values of the namesake into a new generation is quite a difficult thing.

David LaurenThis is not the case with PRL. David Lauren, Ralph’s oldest son, has been an integral part of his father’s business. Today, David is in charge of Polo Ralph Lauren’s marketing, advertising and corporate communications and the driving force behind the company’s new look (that’s Senior Vice President, at only 37 years old). He has brought polo.com to the forefront of digital fashion initiatives, and is highly invested in the success of the company.

David Lauren has unique experience that would make him a great fit (from an outsider’s view, anyway) as successor to his father’s position. First of all, he has grown up within the Ralph Lauren lifestyle, and from an early age experienced the American rituals that his father only dreamed of as a child. He understands the business as well as anyone could because he grew up with it.

While in college at Duke, David founded a magazine called Swing, which had broad readership among its targeted 20-something market, but folded after 5 years. David then joined his father’s company, and was the force behind the Rugby line as well as polo.com. He has shown that he can connect with the younger markets, a mission that often alluded his father.

Since PRL is now a public company, issues of succession are not controlled by Ralph Lauren alone. However, David has proven himself a likely candidate when a time for transition emerges.

Sources

investor.ralphlauren.com, polo.com, wwd.com, fundinguniverse.com, askmen.com, infomat.com, architecturaldigest.com, time.com, nytimes.com, harbus.org





Fashion History: The American Way (Sportswear to Total Living)

21 06 2009

The American model for the fashion business began with sportswear, moved through licensing giants, and now includes the behemoth category “total living.”

American majors in fashion

Sportswear Roots

by Claire McCardell 1946, CORBISClaire McCardell was probably the most influential American designer to be associated with New York design through her simple collections of sportswear, adhering to a basic and unchanging set of stylistic and practical criteria. Beginning her collections in 1940 to her death in 1958, her designs stood as the antithesis to the Parisian New Look.

Other prominent sportswear designers to emerge around or after WW2 included Charles James (who was commercially unsuccessful in ready-to-wear, and later returned to couture), Mainbocher (who relocated from Paris to NY with a clean aesthetic style), and later Bill Blass, Betsey Johnson and Scaasi (who drew great inspiration from the NY lifestyle and culture).

rothkoWhile the Parisian couture movement after the war was aimed at recreating a national high art, NY couturiers were much more open and exposed to influences in commerce and pop culture. Many creative forms were evolving through the work of Pollock, Rothko, Warhol, Oldenburg and others, and American fashion designers’ receptiveness to these creative changes sustained their relevance. Furthermore, the ethnic/cultural melting pot of NYC called for a basic aesthetic that would suite everyone, leading to the American style of simplicity through clean lines, colors and patterns.

Casual, easy-to-wear (and maintain) items originally developed by McCardell paved the way for subsequent designers to rework the new classics, based on the cultural movements of the day. Think: Halston, Geoffrey Beene, Perry Ellis, and later Calvin Klein and Donna Karan.

Brands & American Culture

Basics = Glamor

American brands grew famous not only through ease-of-use, but by applying glamor to the basics. Calvin Klein was really the first to bring this strategy onto the international stage with cK Jeans.

Sex Sports Sells

American brands maintained a wholesome edge by applying sport motifs to marketing campaigns. Ralph Lauren is really the champion here (ha, champion), naming lines in his arsenal after waspy sports (polo, rugby, etc.).

No Logo???

American companies were first to mark-up and sell basics by brand name. While this began in the US, it is now a global trend. I’m looking at you, GAP.

The Challenge of Democratic Fashion

American designers have a tradition of taking inspiration from the streets and pop culture. A brand image based on a lifestyle within pop culture makes US brands highly appealing in the mass market, and allows for an easy shift from product specialization (dresses) through licensing of additional products (underwear, sunglasses, perfume) to a total-living product range (clothes, accessories, furniture, house paint). However, it also presents some limitations outside of the US market, namely in Europe.

There exists a problem of perception of US brands, making it difficult for them to gain market share in Europe.Picture 2

If a consumer thinks a country’s production system is geared towards the mass market, she will have problems associating that country’s products with high-end, exclusive quality. This perception is furthered when a brand enters a foreign market at the lowest price point.

Most high-end designers enter the market at the top level, and then trickle-down into the mass market. (Even Armani, who just added a couture line in 2006, began in high-end ready-to-wear.)

cK and some other US brands have entered the EU market at the most accessible lower levels (underwear), and then have problems moving into the upper end. Once you position yourself at the bottom of the market, it is very difficult to move up against market perception. It would be similar to the GAP opening a couture line in the eyes of the European market.

Change is Gonna Come

2009 CFDA Swarovski award nominees Clockwise from left: Tim Hamilton, Alejandro Ingelmo, Patrik Ervell,Albertus Q. Swanepoel, Thakoon Panichgul, Justin Giunta, Alexander Wang, Robert Geller, Jason Wu

Against this perception is the current economic crisis, which is leveling the playing field in production quality as European brands are increasingly forced to outsource into developing countries, making the “Made in the USA” mark gain relative global superiority. Also, younger American designers are becoming increasingly coveted around the world (Marc Jacobs, Vera Wang, Thakoon, Philip Lim, Jason Wu, etc) by demonstrating modern global aesthetic relevance in combination with the US style that is down-to-earth and easy.

As the classic European brands look to shake the dust off by employing entertaining head-designers and pumping millions into blowout marketing campaigns, the American brands maintain relevancy by willingly passing the generational torch to young designers (bringing youthful vigor to the whole industry); paying attention to and anticipating market shifts; and by sticking to the tradition of ease and multi-cultural simplicity.





The Italian System for Fashion

2 06 2009

1950s ferdinandi

Italian Fashion Industry – Cycles of Development

Though some could argue otherwise, according to the experts in Italy, there are 4 primary phases or cycles of Italian fashion industry development.

  1. 1950s-60s:  Industrial production systems are developed after WW2
  2. 1960s-70s:  Economic and social change emerges, apparel system reacts
  3. 1980s:  Democratization of fashion and surge of “Made in Italy” around the world
  4. 1990s:  Brand concentration, financing revisions and mergers & acquisitions

The 1st Cycle: 1950s-60s

Prior to industrial developments in Italy, which occurred only after WW2, 90% of Italians were rurally employed. The elite acquired their luxury products from France, and Italian goods were considered “poor”. Most higher fashion was reserved for men, as women did not have as many black tie events to dress for.

At the time, the fashion industry in Italy was largely non-existent. With the high-end consumers buying their fashions from Paris, or having copies made by local tailors, some industrialists noticed a gap in the market supply, which called for functional, durable, high quality garments. To begin to meet this demand,  Italian company Gruppo Finaziario Tessile (GFT) took the first initiative to measure a wide sample of the Italian population to create national sizing system.

Italian Apparel Finds a Niche

giorgini's la sala bianca show of italian designs for the us market, 1951In 1951, an Italian importer for American goods, named Gian Battista Giorgini, realized the the US market was also ready for something new and different from that offered by France. They had mass-produced garments, the elite could buy haute couture from Paris, and yet there was nothing in between. Giorgini used his US contacts for market research and development, and began to organize Italian designers, whom he encouraged to abandon their French knock-offs and pursue an affordable Italian style. With new production technologies from the States being imported into Italy as part of the recovery plan, and a large skilled workforce of women to operate the machinery, GFT and other Italian manufacturing firms such as Marzotto and Lebole developed the production end of the industry. As many of top producers had a background in men’s tailoring, there was still a strong industrial concentration in menswear, but the mass-production capabilities in the States would find their way into Italian womenswear production soon enough.

You could summarize that the beginnings of the Italian Fashion Industry were characterized by:

  • Large manufacturing facilities
  • Economies of scale (primarily the US market)
  • Strong specialization

The 2nd Cycle: 1960s-70s

girl_trioIn most cultures, up until this point, children and adolescents had dressed as their parents dressed. In the States and the UK, pop culture shifted in the wake of the Baby Boom as young people struggled to develop a new identity and used fashion as a means to demonstrate their separation from the values of their parents’ generation. (England was becoming a hub for the new youth culture, inspiring fashion and trends around the world, in addition to American hippies.) Women had entered the workforce in increasing number, and no longer wanted to dress as housewives. Further, as there were fewer and fewer occasions for dressing up, people began to seek more informal clothing. Trends had begun to be driven by market needs, as opposed to the stylistic direction set in Paris.

Big Business Gets Smaller

woolworths union strike 1970At the same time, there were many social and union conflicts that helped create increased labor costs in developed countries, resulting in a surge of apparel imports from developing countries. The combination of these elements together with the oil crisis of 1974 and the Italian economic crisis of 1975 caused the big manufacturers to lose their hold on the mass market. There was no longer a one-size-fits-all model for fashion (and that was only the beginning, as we now know!).

As the big manufacturers in the States and elsewhere had maintained large scale standardized production even after consumer demand had decreased and diversified, the labor costs in Italy were falling and new small/medium-sized production companies were forming. Manufacturers began to outsource production in Italy, and even France began to rely heavily on the cheap yet skilled Italian labor pool for their pret-á-porter lines.

Designers Respond to a Changed Environment

1979 versace for genny adA new generation of designers emerged in Italy, capable of working with industry partners to produce collections that were fashionable and more affordable than their French counterparts. (Consider Armani & Cerruti, Versace & Genny, or Soprani/MaxMara.) These designers had relationships with market-savvy business leaders, who ensured that the Italian form of fashion would meet the demand of developed markets. The Italian Fashion Week cycle, following on the heels of Paris, became increasingly popular to buyers and press who saw the potential of Italian fashion’s middle ground between haute couture (France) and mass fashion (the US).

In summary, this cycle of development in the industry of Italian fashion can be characterized by:

  • New consumer values and lifestyles (youth, rebellion, rock, women in business, etc)
  • Market segmentation (no longer one-size-fits-all)
  • Increased demand for informal wear
  • The decrease of influence from Paris and haute couture
  • The increase of influence from London and the youth culture

The 3rd Cycle: 1980s

DynastyCast-Season6-1985-1986This was the decade where the world found Italy.

By the 1980s, Italy had little competition from other developed countries for quality textile production. However, developed markets were building a habit a rampant consumerism, with a renewed interest in fashion. The Italian style had gradually been gaining consensus, especially in the States, which had become the largest consumer market. Meanwhile, Italian industry was looking for new formulas to stay (or get) on top of the fashion game.

Total Look, Branding & Hollywood

A new type of relationship began to form between industry and the designers, which was more a partnership that a contractual business relationship. With the craze for “Total Look” taking the fashion scene by storm, designers began to throw their labels onto every conceivable product in their quest for notoriety and brand building.

Internationalization, mass media and the help of Hollywood brought Italian industry onto the main markets. For example, Armani exclusively clothed actor Richard Gere for his role in American Gigalo, bringing the brand notoriety throughout the States and abroad. You can see an early example of product placement with Armani’s menswear collection in the closet scene of American Gigalo, in the clip below:

Love for Licensing

Licensing agreements had become the method of choice for labels to expand their designer names into new product categories (including second and third lines, kids wear, athletic wear, homewear, eyewear, fragrances, etc.). The cooperation between industrial companies and designers, mainly based on these licensing agreements, was the key success factor to growth for the Italian fashion industry.

Fashion companies moved from product-specialization to develop multi-product capabilities through their licensees. In addition to manufacturing, licensees were used to handle distribution and retail activities for the licensor brands, while the brands in turn provided the design concept, the brand name and image.

Throughout the 80s, much of the Italian fashion system depended on licensing agreements for growth and for specialized production (after all, what does a ready-to-wear designer know about producing furniture or fragrances if he can’t rely on experience professionals to help him?). However, as the brands amassed capital, and learned from their licensees about best (and worst) practices, it became clear that licensing could be equally beneficial and detrimental.

Brands like Gucci were widely diluted through numerous licensees, all whom had a different idea of what the brand represented and how their designs should appear and retail. On the verge of bankruptcy, they needed to build capital and buy back their licenses, in order to impose a universal brand strategy throughout their comapnies.

Within the decade, four different groups of players on the Italian fashion scene had clearly emerged. They were:

  1. Industrial companies (GFT, Marzotto, Miroglio)
  2. Small to medium-sized industrial companies with product orientation (Max Mara, Zegna, Genny, Aeffe, Ittierre)
  3. Designer/entrepreneurs who both design and produce (Missoni, Mila Shon, Mario Valentino)
  4. Pure designers who take designs to production firms (Versace, Armani, Ferré, Moschino, Krizia)

By the end of the 1980s, Italian designers had entered into a new system of growth:

  • Most remained family industries (Missoni, Prada, Versace, etc)
  • Designers maintained direct control over their “first lines” (the highest line in their brand’s “food chain”  –   typically ready-to-wear)
  • Brands developed second lines and brand extension, typically under general artistic direction of the original designer and through licensing agreements
  • Brands developed direct control of distribution, taken back from licensees
  • Focus was kept on retail, to create a unified harmony across a branded retail outlets

You could therefore conclude that the Italian model for the fashion industry, at this point, consisted of designers sketching models for the primary line, with manufacturing and additional product development farmed out to licensees, with the finished products then brought back under internal control for distribution and sales. Just ten years prior, licensees had handled everything but the initial design, brand name and image direction for the Italian brands.

Unlike France, Italy typically relied on lower-end textiles – not fragrances and accessories – to make the big money.

The 4th Cycle: 1990s

Versace w supermodels 1991 guardianTowards the end of the 20th Century, the fashion system was undergoing many changes. The fashion system had become increasingly global in supply and demand, affecting Italian, French and American firms together.

versace-couture 1994New players were entering the field; for example, the luxury conglomerates. New market segments were being created as well, including the bridge segment, which spoke to a market beneath ready-to-wear but above mass fashion. Entry barriers into the industry had become increasingly higher, with great investments required in marketing (fashion show and advertising extravaganzas, parties, supermodels, etc) and retail. Retail itself was undergoing change through the introduction of the lifestyle concept, pioneered by American designer Ralph Lauren.

Fronting the Tab

In order to meet the new financing needs of the fashion system, many companies opened on the stock exchange. With this move came a market rush by the luxury conglomerates to acquire and reposition the Italian brands with marketable heritage. Much like the French houses before them, Italian brands were gradually having to transfer creative direction from the original designers onto new creatives.

As for the four groups of players on the Italian fashion scene, the 90s saw the following changes:

  1. Industrial companies: begin to acquire brands – typically from past licensors, launch their own brands based on their acquired capabilities, or develop retail strategies (Aeffe/Moschino, GFT/Valentino, Exté, Max Mara, Zegna)
  2. Designer/entrepreneurs: control production and distribution processes with the purchase of production facilities, utilize very few licenses (Versace, Dolce & Gabbana, Armani)
  3. Multibrand Groups: conglomerates acquire brands and designer companies (LVMH, Gucci Group, Prada)
  4. Pure designers: sell their companies to industrial or multibrand groups (Jil Sander, Valentino)

In “Short”

The Italian fashion industry really took off after WW2 with the help of technologies provided as part of the Recovery Plan, the entrepreneurship of business and manufacturing leaders who saw an opportunity, a newly-urbanized population of skilled textile workers, and a burgeoning demand for quality apparel and ready-to-wear.

The first phase of industrial fashion in Italy was made by a few concentrated, large-scale production facilities. As the economy turned south and many new market segments emerged, big business lacked the flexibility to diversify their business model, and small to medium-sized manufacturing companies took the lead.

Designers and their business partners (typically family) recognized the changing market as an opportunity, and developed partnerships with manufacturers who had once contracted work to them. Under this model, the designer became responsible only for the initial designs of his collection, while his business partners managed the brand and image, and licensees took care of the rest – from manufacturing through distribution and retail.

By the end of the 1980s, many brands had gained the capital and the knowledge base to buy back their licenses in specific product categories, as well as their distribution and retail systems. Some were able to purchase their own manufacturing facilities. The typical model now had the design company controlling the initial designs of the highest line and whatever licenses they had brought in-house, as well as their distribution and retail. Manufacturing was still typically licensed out.

During the final years of the 20th Century, the costs of running a fashion business had exploded with a need for mass marketing. Many companies went on the stock exchange to build capital investment. While some brands took control back from their licensees, others were acquired by luxury conglomerates. Some manufacturing leaders developed their own lines or acquired brands they had once licensed production rights from.





Digital Fashion

29 05 2009

iphone


Get ready!

The iPhone is expected to be the shopping norm by December 2010, according to today’s news.

Today’s Women’s Wear Daily reports that YOOX has been the latest to initiate its online shopping portal via the iPhone. Other retailers, such as Shopstyle, Amazon, Sears and SVC have long since developed their own Smartphone applications. In the meanwhile, for those who haven’t developed their own iPhone applications, companies such as Demandware are crafting retail websites  to maintain functionality across a range of Smartphone devices, including the iPhone, BlackBerry, or Palm.

A loophole for luxury?

Even if Smartphones only make up 4% of new mobile phone sales by the end of the year, as predicted by analyst Ramon Llamas of International Data Corp, it makes sense that the majority of those buyers are also luxury shoppers. They’re going to be expecting something from their favorite brands, no?

In the land of luxury, trailblazers Chanel and Ralph Lauren have already adapted iPhone applications to display their fashion shows. However, so does the ever-convenient Style.com application- in fact it provides them all, in addition to information on the models, and the Vogue blogs and headlines! (By the way, this app is so fierce that it actually boosted iPhone sales. Check out the comments in this article.)

What does this mean for our luxury players? Their products are available online through various retailers, and brand enthusiasts can watch the latest fashion shows (with added details) and read the headlines on CondeNast’s Style.com application. If, by chance, I happen to leave Milan and have a Chanel shopping emergency in Paris, I can google the address, so the location finders are not terribly original either. What I’m saying is this: Props to you at Chanel and Ralph Lauren for getting your own apps out there, but is that all you got?!

Bespoke service & building an online luxe environment

LuxuryButlerHere’s what I want out of a luxury brand: I want the feel of the brand. I want the background story behind the items I love- how it was conceived, how it was constructed; what makes it special. I want to know what music the design team is listening to, and I want to be able to download playlists from fashion week and songs that are related to the collection, whether from inspiration or just setting the mood. If, like in last year’s Versace collection, there has been a collaboration with a specific artist, I want to see some images of the artist’s original work, and where I might be able to see a gallery exhibit. If I watch the fashion show on a brand’s application, I would like some function that allows me to purchase a specific item I see, with my own measurements safely recorded into the brand’s vault… I want a virtual reminder of the service I would receive in-store, if in fact, I was in a store. (You know when you’re in a real luxury environment, and you should know when you’re in a virtual luxury environment, as well.)

Basically, I want the luxury retailing experience that is just-for-me, and I want the insider information on the brands I love. Dolce & Gabbana has made headway on this through the creation of their online magazine Swide.com. Let’s get that into an iPhone application, combine it with the online retail capabilities currently being developed for the brand by YOOX, and we’re in business!

When leaders become followers

The fashion and luxury industry was once a cutting-edge beacon of hope in the advertising world. The desire and longing it was produced with such buzz now seems like a stale yawn in today’s virtual environment, and I think that, unless the big guys step up and start innovating, their current model of following the mass market online will do more to devalue the idea of luxury than any 70% off sales could have done in the early days of the recession.

The fact that most luxury brands have limited to no online presence and retailing capabilities, much less their barely existent Smartphone presence, gives me reason to worry not only about the future of my profession, but also about the future of the luxury industry itself.

style.com screenshot

Where I see another real promise is in the fashion media industry, and they are definitely stepping up to the challenge. I love fashion and cultural magazines, but I hate carrying them around (especially with today’s weight limits for carry-on items). If I can squish my favorite magazines down into my iPhone, well, that’s something I’d definitely pay for. I’m really hoping that the rest of Conde Nast’s media portfolio and others follow suit. Vogue wins again!





The French System for Fashion & Luxury

14 01 2009

French fashion has long been reflective of social and economic hierarchy, illuminating the distinction among classes. Beginning with the Royal Court of the Sun King, France became the capitol of rich fashion. After Charles Worth created the business of haute couture in the 1800s, Paris became the creative center for a business model that has evolved greatly, yet still remains centered around the spirit of haute couture.

Haute couture is identified as unique pieces constructed with precious materials, made-to-measure, and made for special occasions- not daily wear. A dress of this nature today should run you on average between 20,000 and 30,000 euro and up. Where there were once more than 30,000 clients per year for the highest form of French fashion, today there remain less than 3,000, and most of these are irregular clients. Hence, haute couture is not a big business anymore; it is unaffordable and impractical, as there are fewer and fewer occasions in today’s world to wear such items. Therefore, it has become much less profitable than it once was, having lost the link with modern life.

Most companies that made their name in haute couture today sell mostly accessible products and democratic accessories like lipstick, perfumes, and so on. However, to continue to sell these more “basic” goods at high profit margins, they must continue to produce high fashion. People are now buying the legacy of couture, rather than the couture itself. Therefore, to make the big bucks selling goods at the bottom, you must be positioned at the top.

According to French law as of 2008, 50 garments per season must be produced by hand, by at least 20 skilled in-house workers for a fashion company to be considered a house of haute couture. (This model is changing under the current economic situation, in order to protect the existing haute couture legacy; too many couturiers were closing their doors under the weight of these expensive restrictions.) These companies lack a bottom-up business model, and have no second-lines: consider French powerhouses Dior and Chanel, as opposed to Armani, Ralph Lauren, Dolce & Gabbana, etc.

john_galliano_paris_menswear01Brand images and communications demonstrate a high level of arrogance and provocation. Have you ever wondered how or why that “crazy stuff that nobody is ever going to buy” makes it onto the catwalk? The most elaborate and provocative designs are taken onto the runway because the goal is not mass profitability, but to demonstrate creativity and uniqueness. Consider the wild boys Jean Paul Gaultier for Hermes, or John Galliano for Dior (below).

john_galliano_dior_paris_fashion_week

In fact, most clients are unaware of exactly who is the designer behind today’s major labels. Instead, they typically know what celebrities are wearing them (the Poiret legacy lives on!).

To summarize, the French business model is derived from a long tradition of craft and individualism. Couture was the original product of the French fashion and luxury system, which is now integrated with accessories. The image of sophistication and provocation are used to produce the sense of luxury, which is what the companies are selling. Viola!

Here’s my hastily-made visual (with apologies to France):

French luxury business model